The transition towards a climate-neutral energy system towards that is supplied from renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Although Germany has identified the necessity of an energy transition early, the ongoing expansion of renewable energies such as onshore and offshore wind energy, photovoltaics or biomass is required to overcome this challenge. Furthermore, mobility, thermal energy and industry sector in general need to be decarbonized with help of sector coupling and energy from renewable sources. Finally, we need more energy efficiency in order to achieve climate-neutrality in 2050.
At around 6 per cent in the year 2000, the proportion of renewable energy used in gross electricity consumption in Germany grew to 42.0 per cent in 2019. In the Renewable Energy Sources Act of 2021 (EEG 2021), the German Federal Government set the next target at a share of 65 per cent of gross electricity consumption coming from renewable sources in the year 2030. In the same act, the expansion targets for onshore and offshore wind energy, photovoltaics and biomass until 2030 are defined. The capacities of onshore wind energy are supposed to increase from 54.4 GW in mid-2020 to 71 GW in 2030 whereas the target for offshore wind energy capacities was set at 20 GW in 2030 after reaching 7.8 GW in mid-2020. Aiming at 100 GW in 2030, the installed photovoltaic capacities almost need to double from 51 GW in mid-2020. Biomass capacities are targeted to grow from 5 GW in mid-2020 to 8.4 GW.
With gross consumption shares from renewable energy sources of 15.0 per cent and 5.6 per cent in 2019, the thermal energy and mobility sector are lagging behind. At a primary energy consumption of 3,550 TWh in 2019, the total proportion of energy from renewable sources adds up to 14.9 percent. In its Energy Efficiency Strategy 2050, the German Federal Government set the target to reduce the primary energy consumption by 50 per cent until 2050, in comparison to 2008.